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MONGOLIAN CULTURE

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MONGOLIA ART


Mongolian Traditional Art

Mongolia is a country of eternally blue skies, unbounded steppe expanses, magic mountain summits, primeval taiga forests, transparent rivers and lakes and endless sand dunes. The Mongolian people from the ancient times love songs have many drawling and short folk songs, graceful and peculiar dances, different kinds of musical instrument, passed on one generation to another and preserving the traditional national peculiarity. They incarnate the people's craftsmanship; reflect the heroic deeds and everyday life on the country and its people. Constant search of traditional folk song, melodies and dances of various nationalities of Mongolia, through study of the rituals and customs enables the ensembles and the groups to enrich its repertoire, while preserving the feature.

Performing Arts of Mongolia

MUSIC
Modern Mongolian music takes it origin in traditional Mongolian music, songs, chanting and praise. Professional music was developed in the XX century. . .composers such as S.Gonchigsumlaa, L.Murdorj, B.Damdinsuren and others have greatly contributed to the development of Mongolia's modern music.

The first Mongolian opera "Three sad hills" was written in the 1940s by B.Damdinsuren and B.Smirnoff. In 1950 operas "Path of happiness" by B.Damdinsuren and "Truth" by S.Gonchigsumlaa were written.The 1950s gave birth to Mongolian national ballet and symphony. The first Mongolian symphony "My country" byL.Murdorj was written in 1955, and later in 1958 the symphony orchestra of Mongolia was formed. Music by N.Jantsannorov, Ts.Natsagdorj, B.Sharav, S.Baatarsukh and H.Bilegjargal has marked a new stage in the development of modern classical music in Mongolia.To promote music and support young Mongolian musicians, various music competitions and contests are arranged every year.

Mongolian musicians, singers and composers have successfully participated in international music festivals and competitions. Young musicians are trained at the University of Art and Music and Dance College. A number of students are studying music and arts in Russia and India.

Rock and Pop Music
The very first pop music groups emerged in 1960-1970s. The groups "Soyol Erdene" and "Bayan Mongol"
were the first two groups that played new and modern music in Mongolia. The veterans of pop music in
Mongolia, these two groups have contributed largely to the development of rock and pop music in Mongolia. Today, nearly all music waves and trends, popular in the west, are represented in Mongolia. Music charts are led by groups such as "Haranga", "Hurd", "Chinggis Khan", "Niciton" and "Kamerton". . . pop singers are Ariunaa and Sarantuya. The most famous pop music festival is annual award of the "Pentatonic" prize to the best group or singer.

THEATRE
In 1922, according to the decision by the Revolutionary Union of Youth, the first theatre circle was formed. This circle could be regarded as having laid the foundation of theatre in Mongolia. In 1930 a temporary school of theatre was organised which later, in 1930 was transformed into the State Central Theatre. The years between 1960 and 1980 were the most thriving years for theatre in Mongolia. The Academic Theatre of Classical Art, drama theatres began staging along with national operas and dramas, classical ballets, operas and dramas. These include "Romeo and Julliet", "King Richard" by W.Shakespeare, "Tartuf" by J.Molier, "Life of Galileus" by B.Breeth, "Carmen" by J.Bize, "Othello" by J.Rossini, "Madam Butterfly" by J.Puccini, P.Chaikovsky's "Sleeping beauty", A.Adam's "Corsar" and many others.
From 1990 aside from state professional theatre organisations, many private organisations, theatres andgroups have emerged that are engaged in theatrical activities. Of these the major ones are the "Modern times"theatre and Theatre of Comedy.


Visual Arts of Mongolia

CINEMA
Cinema, the miracle of the 20th century, came to Mongolia in 1910s. First movies were shown in the capital city, at the American Consulate and Russian Stock Exchange's hotel. In 1913 Mongolian prince Namnansuren is known to have brought some films from Russia to show at the residence of the Bogd Khan. After the revolution of 1921, equipment and movies have been purchased and students trained in Russia. Thus people have acquired access to cinema. At that time, cinema in Mongolia was called "Shadow show", and it was free of charge, until the first cinema theatre "Ard" was built in 1930s. In 1935, under the decision of the Council of Ministers, a movie production company "Mongol kino" was set up with Soviet assistance. The first production of the company was a documentary "74th Celebration of 1st May". In 1936, the first feature movie created with the technical assistance of the Soviet "Lenfilm".
Mongolia's first movie directors, cameramen, editors and other personnel were trained on the job by professionals from the Soviet Union. And in 1938 Mongolians were able to make independently "Norjmaa's way", and "Wolves" in 1939. Movies directed by the famous Mongolian film director D.Jigjid, such as "Tsogt taij" (1945), "People's messenger" (1959), "Flood", "Son-in-law" and others have became classics of Mongolian cinema. Film directors of younger generation, such as H.Damdin, Ts.Navaan, Ch.Gombo, B.Baljinnyam, B.Sumhuu and O.Urtnasan have made their unique contribution to further development of Mongolian cinema. The 1990s have became a turning point in the history of Mongolian cinema. Around 20 private film studios that have emerged between 1992 and 1997, produced more than 100 feature movies. Foreign relations with films companies have expanded as well. Joint productions of both documentary and feature films with French, Japanese, Chinese and Mongolian film producers have successfully participated in various international film festivals.


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FINE ARTS

Brief history of Mongolian fine arts
Mongolian fine art has a rich history and reflects the people's life and labor. Fine art is one of the origins of any nation's culture. It is an aesthetic reflection of human emotions, imagination and handicraft.
Mongolian fine art has a tradition and history of years.
The Mongolian fine arts has tradition and history of hundreds of years. The fine arts of Mongolia is famous for its incredible paintings. Cave paintings aged 8-3 thousand years which were found in the Khoid Tsenkher cave, Mankhan soum, Khovd aimag in Mongolia are considered the first art works in the territory of Mongolia. The art and architecture history of Mongolian Dinasty began in the 12th century and its development were combined with other nation's arts and architecture. The capital city of Mongol Dinasty Khar Khorum has left a noticeable imprint in mankind's history with its architecture. The development of religious arts and architecture which developed in 16-to early 20th century caused a change of design for all buildings ranging from gers to halls into Buddhist design and therefore there many monasteries were built. Among the sculptors G. Zanabazar /1635-1723/, the religious leader of mongolia and great sculptor and painter, was the most famous. Even today his sculptures, statues and cast works are considered the most surprising in the world. A secular art, which is famous as Mongol zurag, became a genre of mongolian art in the 19th century and it resulted in expansion of art theme and content. The most outstanding representative of Mongol zurag is B.Sharav /1869-1939/ and his paintings put were the first works of modern Mongolian art.

FINE ART
Fine arts of Mongolia are famous for its incredible paintings. Cave paintings aged 3-8 thousand years and found in the Khoid Tsenkher cave, Munkhan somon of Khovd aimag, are considered the first works of art discovered in the territory of Mongolia. The history of art and architecture of the Mongolian Empire begins in the 12th century and at later times was influenced by other nations. The capital city of the Mongol Dynasty, Khar Khorum, was a magnificent proof of the glory and majesty of the Mongolian Empire. With the development of religious arts and architecture, in 16 to early 20th century, design of buildings acquired features of Buddhist temples. Many monasteries were built during this time. Works, that represents today's classical painting techniques, are U.Yadamsuren's "The Old Horse-fiddler", A.Senghetsokhio's "The Mongol Lady", B.Avarzed's "Uurgach" and Ts.Minjuur's "Caravan Guide".



MODERN ART
A new social system which was founded upon the victory of Revolution in 1921 was focused on art works.
Therefore art works of that time were dedicated to publicity of he new system. Since then Mongolian artists
became acquainted with European paintings and began using both Mongolian and European drawing
methods. In order to develop Mongolian art systematically specialised artists were prepared and there were
established specialised agencies in Mongolia. In 1950s many genres of fine art, carpet and porcelain
production were introduced and developed. During this period many artists and architects became very famous for their single thematic works, namely, painter O. Tsevegjav-animals, U.Yadamsuren-workers, N.Tsultem and G.Odon-history and everyday life, L.Gavaa-nature and an architect S.Choimbol-monuments etc. In 1960s there was a great change in the tradition of art-refusing to use linear perspectives, harmonisation of colours and colour endowments in every respect and began to use other techniques of painting as well as themes and contents of art were expanded. Famous art works which represent today's painting techniques are:
-U.Yadamsuren "The Old Horse-fiddler"
- A.Senghetsokhio "The Mongol Lady"
-B.Avarzed "Uurgach"
-Ts.Minjuur "Caravan guide"
Famous artists of 1970-1980 are D.Amgalan who mastered xylography, M.Butemj, Ya.Urjnee, G.Soosoi, M.Chuvaamid who mastered monumental arts, S.Dondog, B.Chogsom, M.Tsembeldorj and D.Munkhuu etc. On beginning democracy in Mongolia since 1990 there has been a change in the social life and in the sector of arts and culture. As Mongolia expands its foreign relations, artists and architects of Mongolia are provided with possibilities of studying and creating abstract and impressionist arts which were unfamiliar to Mongols.


PAINTING
Mongolian painting began to develop more than two thousand years ago from simple rock drawings. Uighur paintings of the 8th century prove that this art was flourishing in Mongolia and Asia long ago. Buddhism was the main theme of the painting. and it developed into a fine art form. B. Sharav is the painter who linked the old with the new in his art. The Mongolian way of life was depicted in his famous work "One Day in Mongolia" and various portraits. The traditional painting was influenced by European art. The Mongolian painters L. Gavaa, O. Tsevegjav and Ts. Dorjpalam are famous not only at home, but also abroad. They made a great contribution to the creation of new art based in tradition and trained several generations of painters. At present, new and different artistic trends are emerging, and creative young artists are developing the national art.

SCULPTURE
Deer carvings in rock constitute the historical monuments of ancient times. Thousands of these rocks are evidence of the development and wealth of sculpture in ancient Mongolia. Undur Gegeen Zanabazar, a prominent religious figure and famous sculptor of the 17th century, created 21 tare (consorts of Buddha), which show the beauty of Mongolian woman. Zanabazar laid the foundation for the depiction and praise of the human form in Mongolian sculpture. Now there are many famous sculptors such as S. Choimbol, A. Davaatssren, N. Jambai and L. Dashdeleg. The monument to D. Sukhbaatar by S. Choimbol is a symbol of Mongolia and it gives an idea of our country to foreign visitors. It is a unique example of a Mongolian horse-rider represented through the medium of sculpture. It is hoped that creative young artists will further contribute to sculpture in Mongolia


FINE ARTS

Brief history of Mongolian fine arts
Mongolian fine art has a rich history and reflects the people's life and labor. Fine art is one of the origins of any nation's culture. It is an aesthetic reflection of human emotions, imagination and handicraft.
Mongolian fine art has a tradition and history of years.
The Mongolian fine arts has tradition and history of hundreds of years. The fine arts of Mongolia is famous for its incredible paintings. Cave paintings aged 8-3 thousand years which were found in the Khoid Tsenkher cave, Mankhan soum, Khovd aimag in Mongolia are considered the first art works in the territory of Mongolia. The art and architecture history of Mongolian Dinasty began in the 12th century and its development were combined with other nation's arts and architecture. The capital city of Mongol Dinasty Khar Khorum has left a noticeable imprint in mankind's history with its architecture. The development of religious arts and architecture which developed in 16-to early 20th century caused a change of design for all buildings ranging from gers to halls into Buddhist design and therefore there many monasteries were built. Among the sculptors G. Zanabazar /1635-1723/, the religious leader of mongolia and great sculptor and painter, was the most famous. Even today his sculptures, statues and cast works are considered the most surprising in the world. A secular art, which is famous as Mongol zurag, became a genre of mongolian art in the 19th century and it resulted in expansion of art theme and content. The most outstanding representative of Mongol zurag is B.Sharav /1869-1939/ and his paintings put were the first works of modern Mongolian art.

FINE ART
Fine arts of Mongolia are famous for its incredible paintings. Cave paintings aged 3-8 thousand years and found in the Khoid Tsenkher cave, Munkhan somon of Khovd aimag, are considered the first works of art discovered in the territory of Mongolia. The history of art and architecture of the Mongolian Empire begins in the 12th century and at later times was influenced by other nations. The capital city of the Mongol Dynasty, Khar Khorum, was a magnificent proof of the glory and majesty of the Mongolian Empire. With the development of religious arts and architecture, in 16 to early 20th century, design of buildings acquired features of Buddhist temples. Many monasteries were built during this time. Works, that represents today's classical painting techniques, are U.Yadamsuren's "The Old Horse-fiddler", A.Senghetsokhio's "The Mongol Lady", B.Avarzed's "Uurgach" and Ts.Minjuur's "Caravan Guide".



MODERN ART
A new social system which was founded upon the victory of Revolution in 1921 was focused on art works.
Therefore art works of that time were dedicated to publicity of he new system. Since then Mongolian artists
became acquainted with European paintings and began using both Mongolian and European drawing
methods. In order to develop Mongolian art systematically specialised artists were prepared and there were
established specialised agencies in Mongolia. In 1950s many genres of fine art, carpet and porcelain
production were introduced and developed. During this period many artists and architects became very famous for their single thematic works, namely, painter O. Tsevegjav-animals, U.Yadamsuren-workers, N.Tsultem and G.Odon-history and everyday life, L.Gavaa-nature and an architect S.Choimbol-monuments etc. In 1960s there was a great change in the tradition of art-refusing to use linear perspectives, harmonisation of colours and colour endowments in every respect and began to use other techniques of painting as well as themes and contents of art were expanded. Famous art works which represent today's painting techniques are:
-U.Yadamsuren "The Old Horse-fiddler"
- A.Senghetsokhio "The Mongol Lady"
-B.Avarzed "Uurgach"
-Ts.Minjuur "Caravan guide"
Famous artists of 1970-1980 are D.Amgalan who mastered xylography, M.Butemj, Ya.Urjnee, G.Soosoi, M.Chuvaamid who mastered monumental arts, S.Dondog, B.Chogsom, M.Tsembeldorj and D.Munkhuu etc. On beginning democracy in Mongolia since 1990 there has been a change in the social life and in the sector of arts and culture. As Mongolia expands its foreign relations, artists and architects of Mongolia are provided with possibilities of studying and creating abstract and impressionist arts which were unfamiliar to Mongols.


PAINTING
Mongolian painting began to develop more than two thousand years ago from simple rock drawings. Uighur paintings of the 8th century prove that this art was flourishing in Mongolia and Asia long ago. Buddhism was the main theme of the painting. and it developed into a fine art form. B. Sharav is the painter who linked the old with the new in his art. The Mongolian way of life was depicted in his famous work "One Day in Mongolia" and various portraits. The traditional painting was influenced by European art. The Mongolian painters L. Gavaa, O. Tsevegjav and Ts. Dorjpalam are famous not only at home, but also abroad. They made a great contribution to the creation of new art based in tradition and trained several generations of painters. At present, new and different artistic trends are emerging, and creative young artists are developing the national art.

Canoeing on lake; Actual size=180 pixels wide

Friends camping; Actual size=180 pixels wide

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